The National Education Policy 2020- A hope to all Indians.

The National Education Policy 2020- A hope to all Indians…

The union cabinet on 29th July 2020 approved the new National Education Policy 2020. Union Ministers for Information and Broadcasting (I&B)Prakash Javadekar and Human Resource Development (HRD) and Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank, made the announcement on the NEP- 2020(HT, 2020).

Aim– To make “India a global knowledge superpower”

 Renaming MHRD to Ministry of Education

The last National Education Policy which was introduced by Rajeev Gandhi in 1986 which renamed the ministry as the Ministry of Human Resource Development(MHRD) and P V Narasimha Rao served as the first minister of MHRD. On last Wednesday, while presenting the third NEP 2020 of India, announced the renaming of MHRD as the Ministry of Education.

Major Highlights of NEP 2020, pulling down the existing Drawbacks

The (5+3+3+4) structure

Before:

  • The student enters into an education platform by the age of 3 (playschool).
  • Then to Kinder garden ( LKG& UKG) -2 years
  • The student then enters into his secondary education ( 1st grade to 10th grade) – 10 years
  • After the tenth, two years of higher secondary education (+1 and +2).

Now:

  • The number of years the same but the structure is divided considering the “cognitive-developmental stage“- early childhood, school years, and secondary stage.
  • 5 years of Fundamental stage which include multilevel, play activity-based education.
  • 3 years of Preparatory Stage which include play, discovery, and activity-based and interactive classroom learning ( Class 3-5).
  • 3 Years of Middle stage which comprises of experiential learning in the sciences, mathematics, arts, social sciences, and humanities (Class 6-8).
  • 4 years of Secondary Stage- multidisciplinary study, greater critical thinking, flexibility and student choice of subjects (class 9-12).

Extending the Right to Education from 3 years to 18 years.

  • The age for Right to Education has extended.
  • Before it was from 5 to 14 years ( preschool to high school), the new NEP announces the Right to free and compulsory education from 3 to 18 years old.
  • This may impart an effective basic knowledge in children, as we know that most of the children enter into the education when they are three years old ( through Anganawadis or Playschool) but due to fewer privileges in families, many children start their education only when they are five years old. This reduce the basics obtained by that child when compared to another child who enters the preschool after attending the playschool/Anganwadi.
  • Also before, the students get free and compulsory education till the age of fourteen ( 8th standard), this has lead several students to stop their studies and engage in different activities.
  • According to the NEP 2020, the government will invest additional money to promote the education of a child from three years to eighteen years. ( from preschool to twelfth standard).

What are the Drawbacks of Indian Education System?

 More focus on vocational studies in school- level

Till now, the Indian education system focuses on the theories taught in the classes. Learn theories, write exam and pass to the next grade. The only practical session that a student get ll be the Physical Training period. The NEP 2020 has brought change to this system by introducing the vocational training from sixth grade. This will also increase the chance for students to find their passion and plan their future accordingly.

  • As per the NEP 2020; Every child must learn at least one vocational course.
  • A sampling of important vocational crafts, such as carpentry, electric work, metalwork, gardening, pottery making, etc., as decided by States and local communities during Grades 6-8.
  • By 2025, at least 50% of learners through the school and higher education system shall have exposure to vocational education.
  • Similarly, students will have internship opportunity in vocational training throughout grade 6- 12, especially in holidays.

The New Exam Pattern

The concept of exam is a terror for all, even at times we used to curse the one who invented the exam because no exams are students friendly. If you get a good score you have to maintain that score for the entire life and if you have less score you have to hear the whole people comparing you with others. Hey! the good news is..we have a hope….

How National Education Policy 2020 addresses the existing drawbacks of Indian Education System?

  • According to NEP 2020, school students will take exams only for Classes 3, 5, and 8.
  • Assessment in other years will shift to a “regular and formative” style that will be more “competency-based” to promote learning and development testing “higher-order skills, such as analysis, critical thinking and conceptual clarity”.
  • The results of school examinations will be used only for developmental purposes and for continuous monitoring and improvement of the schooling system.

 

A Holistic Progress card…

The NEP 2020 has brought a multidimensional progress card which include:

  • Self-assessment, peer assessment and teachers assessment.
  • The card not only include your cognitive analysis but also your social-emotional and psychological assessment.
  • the report will include progress in project-based and inquiry-based learning, quizzes, role plays, group work, portfolios, etc., to be included in report cards.

Best Highlights of NEP-2020 in Graduation Levels.

4-year of Undergraduate programme FYUP

  • NEP 2020 adopted a four year  UG programme, which was earlier proposed by Dinesh Singh ( former V-C of DU)
  • In FYUP, the conventional three-year Bachelor’s degrees will remain, there will now be a four-year “multi-disciplinary” Bachelor’s programme.
  • Students opting for a three-year Bachelor’s programme can choose a two-year Master’s programme which could be followed by a PhD.
  • Students opting for the four-year Bachelor’s degree with Research can go for a one-year Master’s which is expected to make students ready for a PhD programme.
  • To enrol for a PhD, a Master’s degree or the four-year Bachelor’s degree with Research is now mandatory; it is not clear whether this is referring to a year-long or a two-year Master’s degree(In Defence of MPhil, n.d.).

Dropping out? Don’t worry you ‘ll gain your credit!

According to the survey conducted by National Sample Survey Organisation, In this decade there is an increase in students opting for higher education but the survey also showed that the people who are dropping out is also increasing. We have discussed the example of fish who understand its passion later in their life; Drop out happen when the students have no more interest in continuing the education or when he/she identifies his passion in a different subject. If someone drops the course, what he/she earns is knowledge related to that course and countless shame.

  • NEP 2020 focus on giving credits even though one could not complete his full education.
  • If a student drops in the first year, the student will get a certificate.
  • If the student drops in the second year, will get a Diploma.
  • The students completing the third year will get a bachelor’s degree.
  • The student completing the fourth year will receive a bachelor’s degree with research.

Flexibility in Subject.

As per the second NEP (1986), the students were not having enough freedom to chose their combinations of subjects. The students could only make their selection after the tenth standard. (  Computer science, bio maths, commerce…). Even in college, the students have to go with the complimentary coursed decided by the department.

  • The NEP 2020 envisages broad-based, multi-disciplinary, holistic undergraduate education with flexible curricula, creative combinations of subjects, and integration of vocational education.
  • Now the students could choose the subjects according to their passion ie: if a student like chemistry and maths but hate physics, he/she could choose another subject.
  • This will help the students to learn different dimensions as per their passions.
  • The students will be able to choose major and minor disciplines regardless of the subject combinations that have existed until now.
  • This is expected to benefit those who are interested in multi-disciplinary courses.
  • . There will be no rigid separations between arts and sciences, between curricular and extracurricular activities, between vocational and academic streams.

Going Glocal!

  • According to the new National Education Policy, foreign universities will now be able to operate in India.
  • This move will add ease for students who would like to seek foreign education and save them a lot on dollars. It will also raise the quality of higher education and accessible for a larger section compared earlier.
  • The move will allow 200 top global universities to operate in India and provide quality education and raise standards of India varsities as well.

Controversy in National Education Policy 2020

  • In a segment called ‘multilingualism, and power of language’, the new National Education Policy (NEP) says “wherever possible, the medium of instruction until at least Grade 5, but preferably till Grade 8 and beyond, will be the home language/mother-tongue/local language/regional language”.
  • “Experts have found when a child is born he starts learning in his home language. It is not just in our country, in countries like France and Germany and even Nobel laureates have admitted that their knowledge of science or any other subject has been better when they studied it in their language,” Kasturirangan said.
  • However, the policy gravely misses out on the factor that many students come from other states and might not know the regional or local language. As a result, its effort to promote diversity and pluricultural in language may go futile.

Summing up, the new NEP 2020, the policy has brought many significant changes to the Education especially focusing on a “modern-demand” of education. The NEP 2020 was widely accepted by the education experts, teachers and students all over the nation. The base put forward by the Narendra Modi’s Government in the education system has become a success but the real essence lies in the implementation of the NEP 2020, which have to be catered from the top cities to the rural areas of the nation.

What you feel best/your opinion about National Education Policy 2020??

Use the Comment box to express your ideas…

Disaster! Assam Flood 2020- A Conceptual Study

Assam Flood 2020- A Conceptual Study

The River Filled Eyes of Assam

The “Brahmaputra floods of 2012” was one of a kind, that dismantled the state of Assam. The aftermath of “the great flood” was a wake-up call for the governments. The 2012 flood caused lives of 124 people including children. The  Brahmaputra overflowed, breaching embankments, flooding both agricultural and residential regions, affecting a total of more than 6 million people. The flood showed no mercy even to the animals, flooding  Kaziranga National Park and other 14 districts.

According the flood reports submitted by the government, about 540 animals died in the National Park – a sum of 16 one-horned Indian rhinoceros, numerous Asian Elephants, swamp deers, porcupines and water buffaloes- “ an integral part of food cycle”

Assam Flood 2020- A Conceptual Study

    Breached embankments and flooded Kaziranga National Park (Source: Times of India)

Assam is a flood-prone state and it can be proved with the flood reports of 2013, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019 – Drowning more than 600 lives; a revenue loss of more than 2000 crore every year due to “Annual Floods”. Assam floods also have endangered many animal species – One-horned Indian rhinoceros, and Asian elephants.

“The last decade has reported a death of  more than 100 rhinoceros by “Annual Floods- flooding the national  park”

Assam flood in 2019 – Kaziranga National Park, Assam   (Source: National Geographic)

Since 1950, 14 major floods have struck Assam, making the state “the most vulnerable areas to flood” in India.

2020 Assam Flood

This year is also a “no-stranger” to the Assam Floods. The government has reported it as one of the great floods of the decade.

The flood report depicts the intensity of the flood.

Total number of people died 66
Number of districts affected 28
Number of villages affected 3014
Total crop area affected 1,27,955(hectares)
Total population affected 35,75,832
Total number of relief camps and inmates 711       ,    51,421
Animals affected >25,00,000

(Source: Assam State Disaster Management Authority) (Dated:17/07/2020 )

Why is Assam such a flood-prone area?

The flood season in Assam commences at the month of June with the onset of the South-West Monsoon. Almost every year three to four waves of flood ravage the flood-prone areas of Assam.

5 prime reasons for “super-floods” in Assam.

Intense Monsoon

The long-term rainfall data for Assam, however, shows a decreasing trend that has accelerated since 1981. The annual average rainfall for Assam is 1,524.6 mm. “Assam receives more rainfall than any other states”.

But as per the reports, the average rainfall in Assam is decreasing, but each year the flood is getting intensified. The reason is that there are many other interlinked factors causing the flood. But intense monsoon also imparts its role towards “Annual Floods”.

Brahmaputra River

Assam is built on the banks of the Brahmaputra. It divides the state into Northern and Southern Assam.

 

Hydro-Geomorphic “  features of the state is mainly influenced by the geographic location and characteristic features of the Brahmaputra- width, areas over it flows, tributaries and riverine discharges.

source: Opindia News

Brahmaputra is both a boon and a curse for the Assamese. For half of the year, it is a boon- drinking water by huge underground water reservoirs, watering the crops, discharging natural fertilizers. For the rest of the year it is curse by flooding habitat and crops

 

 

“How come the river be a curse?”

Brahmaputra is a glacial river. It originates in the Manasarovar Lake”  region a close proximity to the Northern Himalayas.(Mount Kailash”).So it has huge water discharge throughout the whole year.

  • The glaciers melts during the summer and the huge water discharge reaches Assam during the on-set of monsoon causing an increased water level till the off-set of monsoon.
  • Brahmaputra is widened as it enters Assam. It can go as wide as 10 km during the monsoon, engulfing the banks. The average width is 6 km.
  • Huge sediment discharge makes its tributaries braided which intensifies the “super flood” every year.

Pollution Induced Global Warming

Global warming is directly linked with uncontrolled melting of glacial ice which becomes a super source for the glacial rivers. It increases the water discharge into the rivers causing flood. ”Super floods “ in Assam is interlinked with the summer glacial discharge and monsoon discharge.

Glacial ice are a good reflectors of radiation. That means there is a negligible melting of ice due to absorption of radiation as they have comparatively high albedo ratio. So the enhanced glacial melting is an outcome of deposition of “black carbon” on ice. Black carbon has poor albedo ratio making them good absorbers of longwave radiation of the sun.

The fine particles absorb light and about a million times more energy than carbon dioxide”.

Emission of industrial effluence causes high deposition of radiation-absorbing aerosols- black carbon and dust of industrial raw materials.

Black carbon concentrations near the Gangotri glacier rose 400 times in summer due to forest fires and stubble burning from agricultural waste, and triggered glacial melt, says a study by scientists at the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG).

India is the second largest emitter of black carbon in the world, with emissions expected to increase dramatically in the coming decades. Black carbon is the second largest contributor to climate change behind carbon.

 

 

“The melting of glaciers in the Himalayas have doubled over the last two decades to around 20 inches in a year- which is equivalent to 3.2 million Olympic swimming pools of water every year”

Black Carbon deposited on Himalayan Glaciers

Source: Tree Hugger

Ill-built Embankments

  • Assam’s flood management depends on the embankments built over regions where the river could overflow over the danger mark.
  • “Embankments -bank of earth for constricting the overflow of flooded river over crops and residential areas.”
  • Several hydro-electric projects (dams) over the river were planned but was of least efficiency cause it floods several areas of Arunachal Pradesh and low lysing Assam. The large width of the river also made these projects inefficient and impractical.
  • Embankments have failed to constrict the overflow in Assam.
  • Embankments in Assam are not built under proper studies and plans. Terrain is uneven and embankments built on uneven earth could not constrict flood over low lying regions even though it is embanked.
  • Ill maintained and poorly constructed embankments.
  • Flooding over braided tributaries have sunk several embankments due to “super discharge”.
  • “197 earthen embankments have been damaged or breached this year”, reported by ASDMA.
  • A mono-strategical approach towards the flood management is least efficient leaving the officials with no “Plan B”.

Human Impinging

  1. Human habitation near the embankments have increased vulnerability to floods. They are exposed to flooding due to poorly built domicile which cannot withstand “Annual Floods”. Government has taken no interest in rehabilitating people near embankments.
  2. Uncontrolled deforestation near the banks of the river – soil erosion which leads to overflow and as result land slides of elevated areas underneath it.

What next?

The government has failed to look into these primes and to make a study of it to control and manage flood.It has drowned thousands of lives of humans and animals.

“Governments are not addressing the problem at the source. – they are firefighting”.The measures of governments are “short term” and “amateurish”. An integrated studies of different flood-prone regions must be undertaken and manoeuvre must be guaranteed by the experts and governments.

References:

9 more dead in Assam floods—The Hindu. (n.d.). Retrieved 19 July 2020, from https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/9-more-dead-in-assam-floods/article32082262.ece
Assam Floods: Latest News, Photos, Videos on Assam Floods—NDTV.COM. (n.d.). Retrieved 19 July 2020, from https://www.ndtv.com/topic/assam-floods
Assam Floods: News, Photos, Latest News Headlines about Assam Floods—The Indian Express. (n.d.). Retrieved 19 July 2020, from https://indianexpress.com/about/assam-floods/
Home | Assam State Disaster Management Authority | Government Of Assam, India. (n.d.). Retrieved 19 July 2020, from https://asdma.assam.gov.in/
IMD | Home. (n.d.). Retrieved 19 July 2020, from https://mausam.imd.gov.in/