Jal Jeevan Mission 2024 for “Indian Water Self-Sufficiency”.

Jal Jeevan Mission for “Indian Water Self-Sufficiency”.

Introduction

Water scarcity is non-availability of the freshwater to meet the demands of the individual. The world is presently at water stress due to the unequal distribution of climate, water pollutions, environmental hazards, depletion of the groundwater etc. Due to these reasons, two-third of the global population lives in a water crisis today and half of the world’s cities experience water pollution.

Jal Jeevan Mission

India is also a country that depends on various resources for freshwater. The increasing demand for water due to an increase in population and over-exploitation of water has lead to water scarcity in many communities. The Government of India’s effective role in the rural drinking water supply sector started in 1972-73 with the launch of the Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP). During the period 1972-1986, the major thrust of the ARWSP was to ensure the provision of adequate drinking water supply to the rural community through the Public Health Engineering System.

The second-generation programme started with the launching of Technology Mission in 1986-87, renamed in 1991-92 as Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission Stress on water quality, appropriate technology intervention, human resource development support and other related activities were introduced in the Rural Water Supply sector.

The third-generation programme started in 1999-2000 when Sector Reform Projects evolved to involve the community in the planning, implementation and management of drinking water-related schemes, later scaled up as Swajaldhara in 2002.

Jal Jeevan Mission for Indian Water Self Sufficiency

How Jalanidi Project Quenched the thirst of People in Kerala.

Kerala is known for its developmental and literacy rates but due to various activities and environmental degradation process happened Kerala started to experience water scarcity. Each decade showed an increasing level of scarcity.

It was then a revolutionary project was announced- The Jalnidhi Project. The idea of the project received wide appreciation and the project has received aids from World Bank. Utilising the 72nd & 73rd amendments in Panchayati Raj Act, the project worked in a decentralised manner where the Local Self Government took the project to the community level.

Jal Jeevan Mission

The Idea of Community Taking Charge…

The project sought to help villages plagued by chronic water shortages, making special provisions to include vulnerable people such as tribals, scheduled caste communities as well as fisher-folk within the project’s ambit.

Small groups of households who wanted better water supply were helped to come together to build and run their own water supply schemes. They were helped to dig new wells (to tap into the upper layers of water) drill bore-wells (to tap into deeper aquifers) or build systems to draw water from the state’s numerous springs, streams, rivers and lakes. They were also helped to build storage tanks and lay downpipes to distribute water to village homes. While the state government bore the lion’s share of capital expenditure (75%), the gram panchayat paid 10 %, and the beneficiaries themselves 15%.

Community groups determined the timings and duration of water supply to member families and levied service charges to meet their operation and maintenance expenses. A number of communities installed water meters to curb consumption.

The Project’s success has helped dispel a number of long-held beliefs: one that piped water supply is a privilege only for the better-off; and two, that the poor are unwilling to share the capital costs of their schemes, or pay the cost of operations for the water they use.

Jal Jeevan Mission for Indian Water Self Sufficiency

Success Stories

  • With water now available at the turn of a tap within family compounds, rural women have gained the most. They no longer have to spend hours collecting water for their homes, freeing up their time to work to supplement family incomes.
  • A group of water users in Minalur is among the most successful under the project. The group ‚Äď that caters to the water needs of 215 households ‚Äď bears all maintenance costs, carries out regular water quality tests, holds monthly meetings, and maintains accounts properly.
Jal Jeevan Mission
the beneficiary of the Kerala government’s innovative rural water supply project, supported by the World Bank.
  • Over the years, the group has saved Rs. 350,000 from user charges, using the interest to fund welfare measures for members such as providing scholarships, helping the poor with health expenses etc.
  • The quality of water has also improved and the incidence of diarrhoea and dysentery has reduced dramatically.

When the residents are satisfied, the village councils too are happy. Earlier, people were always complaining about the lack of water supply, and ‚Äėdharnas‚Äô ‚Äď or protests ‚Äď were frequent, says V. V. Kuttikrishnan, president of Erimayur gram panchayat (GP) in Palakkad district. ‚ÄúThere is peace in most Jalanidhi panchayats now,‚ÄĚ he adds.

Jal Jeevan Mission for Indian Water Self Sufficiency

From Jalanidhi to Jal Jeevan Mission

Jal Jeevan Mission for Indian Water Self Sufficiency.Jal Jeevan Mission for Indian Water Self Sufficiency.Jal Jeevan Mission for Indian Water Self Sufficiency.Jal Jeevan Mission for Indian Water Self Sufficiency.Jal Jeevan Mission for Indian Water Self Sufficiency.Jal Jeevan Mission for Indian Water Self Sufficiency.

The success stories of the Jalanidhi project has laid stones for the Jal Jeevan Project under the Ministry of Jal Shakti. Jal Jeevan Mission is envisioned to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India. The programme will also implement source sustainability measures as mandatory elements, such as recharge and reuse through greywater management, water conservation, rainwater harvesting.

The Jal Jeevan Mission will be based on a community approach to water and will include extensive Information, Education and communication as a key component of the mission. JJM looks to create a Jan Andolan for water, thereby making it everyone’s priority. The Vision of the Project is to provide Every rural household has a drinking water supply inadequate quantity of prescribed quality on a regular and long-term basis at affordable service delivery charges leading to improvement in living standards of rural communities.

The broad objectives of the Mission are:

  • To provide FHTC to every rural household.
  • To prioritize the provision of FHTCs in quality affected areas, villages in drought-prone and desert areas, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) villages, etc.
  • To provide functional tap connection to Schools, Anganwadi centres, GP buildings, Health centres, wellness centres and community buildings
  • To monitor the functionality of tap connections.
  • To promote and ensure voluntary ownership among the local community by way of contribution in cash, kind and/ or labour and voluntary labour (shramdaan)
  • To assist in ensuring the sustainability of water supply system, i.e. water source, water supply infrastructure, and funds for regular O&M
  • To empower and develop human resource in the sector such that the demands of construction, plumbing, electrical, water quality management, water treatment, catchment protection, O&M, etc. are taken care of in short and long term
  • To bring awareness on various aspects and significance of safe drinking water and involvement of stakeholders in a manner that make water everyone’s business. Jal Jeevan Mission for Indian Water Self Sufficiency

Jal Jeevan mission if implemented in a structured manner could address the issue of existing water stress in the Nation and will make the community expertise in water management.

Reference Links:

World Bank on Jalanidhi Project.

Ministry of Jal Shakti-Jal Jeevan

Videos on Jal Jeevan

Click here to view Social Articles…

Jal Jeevan Mission for Indian Water Self Sufficiency

The National Education Policy 2020- A hope to all Indians.

The National Education Policy 2020- A hope to all Indians…

The union cabinet on 29th July 2020 approved the new National Education Policy 2020. Union Ministers for Information and Broadcasting (I&B)Prakash Javadekar and Human Resource Development (HRD) and Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank, made the announcement on the NEP- 2020(HT, 2020).

Aim‚Äď To make¬†‚ÄúIndia a global knowledge superpower‚ÄĚ

 Renaming MHRD to Ministry of Education

The last National Education Policy which was introduced by Rajeev Gandhi in 1986 which renamed the ministry as the Ministry of Human Resource Development(MHRD) and P V Narasimha Rao served as the first minister of MHRD. On last Wednesday, while presenting the third NEP 2020 of India, announced the renaming of MHRD as the Ministry of Education.

Major Highlights of NEP 2020, pulling down the existing Drawbacks

The (5+3+3+4) structure

Before:

  • The student enters into an education platform by the age of 3 (playschool).
  • Then to Kinder garden ( LKG& UKG) -2 years
  • The student then enters into his secondary education ( 1st grade to 10th grade) ‚Äď 10 years
  • After the tenth, two years of higher secondary education (+1 and +2).

Now:

  • The number of years the same but the structure is divided considering the ‚Äúcognitive-developmental stage‚Äú- early childhood, school years, and secondary stage.
  • 5 years of Fundamental stage which include multilevel, play activity-based education.
  • 3 years of Preparatory Stage which include play, discovery, and activity-based and interactive classroom learning ( Class 3-5).
  • 3 Years of Middle stage which comprises of experiential learning in the sciences, mathematics, arts, social sciences, and humanities (Class 6-8).
  • 4 years of Secondary Stage- multidisciplinary study, greater critical thinking, flexibility and student choice of subjects (class 9-12).

Extending the Right to Education from 3 years to 18 years.

  • The age for Right to Education has extended.
  • Before it was from 5 to 14 years ( preschool to high school), the new NEP announces the Right to free and compulsory education from 3 to 18 years old.
  • This may impart an effective basic knowledge in children, as we know that most of the children enter into the education when they are three years old ( through Anganawadis or Playschool) but due to fewer privileges in families, many children start their education only when they are five years old. This reduce the basics obtained by that child when compared to another child who enters the preschool after attending the playschool/Anganwadi.
  • Also before, the students get free and compulsory education till the age of fourteen ( 8th standard), this has lead several students to stop their studies and engage in different activities.
  • According to the NEP 2020, the government will invest additional money to promote the education of a child from three years to eighteen years. ( from preschool to twelfth standard).

What are the Drawbacks of Indian Education System?

‚ÄČMore focus on vocational studies in school- level

Till now, the Indian education system focuses on the theories taught in the classes. Learn theories, write exam and pass to the next grade. The only practical session that a student get ll be the Physical Training period. The NEP 2020 has brought change to this system by introducing the vocational training from sixth grade. This will also increase the chance for students to find their passion and plan their future accordingly.

  • As per the NEP 2020; Every child must learn at least one vocational course.
  • A sampling of important vocational crafts, such as carpentry, electric work, metalwork, gardening, pottery making, etc., as decided by States and local communities during Grades 6-8.
  • By 2025, at least 50% of learners through the school and higher education system shall have exposure to vocational education.
  • Similarly, students will have internship opportunity in vocational training throughout grade 6- 12, especially in holidays.

The New Exam Pattern

The concept of exam is a terror for all, even at times we used to curse the one who invented the exam because no exams are students friendly. If you get a good score you have to maintain that score for the entire life and if you have less score you have to hear the whole people comparing you with others. Hey! the good news is..we have a hope….

How National Education Policy 2020 addresses the existing drawbacks of Indian Education System?

  • According to NEP 2020,¬†school students will take exams only for Classes 3, 5, and 8.
  • Assessment in other years will shift to a ‚Äúregular and formative‚ÄĚ style that will be more ‚Äúcompetency-based‚ÄĚ to promote learning and development testing ‚Äúhigher-order skills, such as analysis, critical thinking and conceptual clarity‚ÄĚ.
  • The results of school examinations will be used only for developmental purposes and for continuous monitoring and improvement of the schooling system.

 

A Holistic Progress card…

The NEP 2020 has brought a multidimensional progress card which include:

  • Self-assessment, peer assessment and teachers assessment.
  • The card not only include your cognitive analysis but also your social-emotional and psychological assessment.
  • the report will include progress in project-based and inquiry-based learning, quizzes, role plays, group work, portfolios, etc., to be included in report cards.

Best Highlights of NEP-2020 in Graduation Levels.

4-year of Undergraduate programme FYUP

  • NEP 2020 adopted a four year¬† UG programme, which was earlier proposed by Dinesh Singh ( former V-C of DU)
  • In FYUP, the conventional three-year Bachelor‚Äôs degrees will remain, there will now be a four-year ‚Äúmulti-disciplinary‚ÄĚ Bachelor‚Äôs programme.
  • Students opting for a three-year Bachelor‚Äôs programme can choose a two-year Master‚Äôs programme which could be followed by a PhD.
  • Students opting for the four-year Bachelor‚Äôs degree with Research can go for a one-year Master‚Äôs which is expected to make students ready for a PhD programme.
  • To enrol for a PhD, a Master‚Äôs degree or the four-year Bachelor‚Äôs degree with Research is now mandatory; it is not clear whether this is referring to a year-long or a two-year Master‚Äôs degree(In Defence of MPhil, n.d.).

Dropping out? Don‚Äôt worry you ‚Äėll gain your credit!

According to the survey conducted by National Sample Survey Organisation, In this decade there is an increase in students opting for higher education but the survey also showed that the people who are dropping out is also increasing. We have discussed the example of fish who understand its passion later in their life; Drop out happen when the students have no more interest in continuing the education or when he/she identifies his passion in a different subject. If someone drops the course, what he/she earns is knowledge related to that course and countless shame.

  • NEP 2020 focus on giving credits even though one could not complete his full education.
  • If a student drops in the first year, the student will get a certificate.
  • If the student drops in the second year, will get a Diploma.
  • The students completing the third year will get a bachelor‚Äôs degree.
  • The student completing the fourth year will receive a bachelor‚Äôs degree with research.

Flexibility in Subject.

As per the second NEP (1986), the students were not having enough freedom to chose their combinations of subjects. The students could only make their selection after the tenth standard. (  Computer science, bio maths, commerce…). Even in college, the students have to go with the complimentary coursed decided by the department.

  • The NEP 2020 envisages broad-based, multi-disciplinary, holistic undergraduate education with flexible curricula, creative combinations of subjects, and integration of vocational education.
  • Now the students could choose the subjects according to their passion ie: if a student like chemistry and maths but hate physics, he/she could choose another subject.
  • This will help the students to learn different dimensions as per their passions.
  • The students will be able to choose major and minor disciplines regardless of the subject combinations that have existed until now.
  • This is expected to benefit those who are interested in multi-disciplinary courses.
  • . There will be¬†no rigid separations between arts and sciences, between curricular and extracurricular activities, between vocational and academic streams.

Going Glocal!

  • According to the new National Education Policy, foreign universities will now be able to operate in India.
  • This move will add ease for students who would like to seek foreign education and save them a lot on dollars. It will also raise the quality of higher education and accessible for a larger section compared earlier.
  • The move will allow 200 top global universities to operate in India and provide quality education and raise standards of India varsities as well.

Controversy in National Education Policy 2020

  • In a segment called ‚Äėmultilingualism, and power of language‚Äô, the new National Education Policy (NEP) says ‚Äúwherever possible, the medium of instruction until at least Grade 5, but preferably till Grade 8 and beyond, will be the home language/mother-tongue/local language/regional language‚ÄĚ.
  • ‚ÄúExperts have found when a child is born he starts learning in his home language. It is not just in our country, in countries like France and Germany and even Nobel laureates have admitted that their knowledge of science or any other subject has been better when they studied it in their language,‚ÄĚ Kasturirangan said.
  • However, the policy gravely misses out on the factor that many students come from other states and might not know the regional or local language. As a result, its effort to promote diversity and pluricultural in language may go futile.

Summing up, the new NEP 2020, the policy has brought many significant changes to the Education especially focusing on a ‚Äúmodern-demand‚ÄĚ of education. The NEP 2020 was widely accepted by the education experts, teachers and students all over the nation. The base put forward by the Narendra Modi‚Äôs Government in the education system has become a success but the real essence lies in the implementation of the NEP 2020, which have to be catered from the top cities to the rural areas of the nation.

What you feel best/your opinion about National Education Policy 2020??

Use the Comment box to express your ideas…